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BqHY[HWxa&Zg;eDW tDWzsJW0hE'Wvm tgvGefqGef0H;'DU< \yifopfc;'DU 1873eHU vQ Zefe0g&D 2OYeDWvDE. vQ Zefe0g&D 4 OYeDWeIbW qmOdWvRqHY[HWvm rde;rE&HEO&dRzmTeDWvDE. tzgzgO]bDTtrHTeDWrGJ0hE vGD;rgwif;'J trdrdO]bDTeDW trHTrGJ0hE aZvDrgwif; eDWvDE.txmYzk0JtDW0hE (9)*QtzmT (4)*QeDW tO]bWOHEcGHR0hE'Wvm tO]qH]qH]zdWeDWvDE. BqHY[HW xa&Zg;eDW rGJ0hE zdWrkWtqH]xkRv*QeDWvDE. t0hEtO]tDW0hE (4)eHUtxDeDW trdrdO]bDQOHE'WtuFDT bWtDWx;vm t0JrkWt[dQ rg&D'Jay:vif;eDW bW,dxMEx; tzkrkWOmY*QeDWvDE.

      1877eHUeDW txmYzdWzgOHWeDW *JExJQtDWxJTvm 0H;vDZDa,g bGDqGef*HUeDWvDE.

      zdWOW,hENlR tBqHY[HW xa&ZgeDW tO]tDW0hE(7)eHUtcHY vhQxGHQvTtcYvm qmcd]eWqmvDQvTqm'JQb]tv;eDW*DQ vDQvTtqm'JQb] tqdWxkRvbsTeDWvDE.OYcE 'lpJvDa, tUrmYt0hEqmYxkU vDQvTtqm'JQb]eDWvDE.eUxUtO] OYcE zhWeJWzhW*JEzhWb] eJWthWtqdWxkRzmTO] ‘yubW,l],UtJWxU e;rE&HE,Q eDWw] tkTvTtO]vm u'k]eJQtO]vm  rdrE&HEtWtWvhReDWvDE. *JExJTpJUvUvm vDQvTqm'JQb]tv;eDWtcE tO]zmT[GHWvU*DQ tqmrHYOkUrHYO]< qmrkRvQO][GHWbJE,DQOd] rGJvmtDW,kQ,gbWtuFDT thWrGJ vDQvTbWtqm'JQb]ud]uFW'h]eDW t0hEt*; rDU[DTbdUrkeHQz]'dWueHQtuFDT vDTxR0hEeDWvDE.

      1882eHUuvlRxDeDW  xa&Zg;v*Q qmqEurHTtuFDT tDWrkRthR tcdW[HGW ,HT0hE'WvDE. vQOmYbHUtzmT  t0hEtqmqDUqmcsJY*JEeRxUeDWvDE. 1883eHU vQ ar 13OYeDW t0hEt0JrkWrGJ0hE av,dkeD/ rg&D'J aqvif;OHW vmxa&Zg;tv;rHEcUxH]eDW chRxJTvm e;rE&HEt*TtDWtv;eDWw] tUuHTbQqdWzW0hE'WvDE. xa&Zg;e;qh tUuHTbQqdWzW0hEuFmYuFmYvm t0JrkWOHWeDWvDE. 'WbW e;rE&HE tqmeHrGHWeDWvDE. xa&Zg; tqmqDUqmcsJU *JE*hQxUxJQeDWvDE.

      eHU 1887eHU vQ ZlvSdKifeDW xUrHqQqmvkxUvm pdefyDw,f ugoD\',fO&dRzmT*DQ *JExJQpJWvUtcE t0hEurTxUqmtDWuDUqmrQt*; eIbW uqg,GQtqmrQOhW,E urHTvDE.qmrQeDWrGJ0hE qmvkxU'JqmbQqdWzW eDW uxd;xJTwTxJTqm'JQb]zdWOHW t*;eDWvDE.

      BvmbWxd;OHEtO] rGJ0hE y&efZDeDt*; tUuHTbQqdWzW0hEeDW rGJuqg,GQcd]eWtuFDT xa&Zg; OhW,E0hEeDWvDE. p]xUvmtxDeDW uqg,GQt*; uxd;xJTwTwJT qm'JQb]zdWOHWvzWt*; tO]*JEqDUxU0hE'WeDWvDE.

      tO]tDW0hE 15eHUtxD urdvhQekRvTvm ugr,fvdkuf rH]xRrkWc&mYzmTtuFDT vDQOhW,EthWtzgzgO]bDQvDE. t0hEtzgzg bWtO]vgeY rGJ ugr,fvkdufrH]xRrkWc&mY'dWvxd;qmYbWvDE. bWeIvJWpGgbJE t0hEeDW tO]qH]0hE'WtuFDTeDWvDE.

      1887eHUeDW vdDG;rgwif; uvhQbQuFJ]t*; vhQud]eItzdWrkW aqvif;'Jxa&Zg;vm 0H;a&gr eDWvDE. vhQbQuFJ]txD vhQtUuHTtcG;vm OY[GQ'dWtDW ugr,fvdkufrH]xRrkWc&mYzmT bJEBO] tDW15eHU yekRvTueIt*;eDWvDE. vcJExkR OY[GQ'dWtcG;eI0hE'WvDE.

      eHU 1888 vQ >\yD 9 OYeDW vhQekRvTvm ugr,fvkdufrH]xRrkWc&mYzmTeDWvDE. uW*JQNU,g0hE'W ugr,fvdkufrH]xRrkWvzW tqmO]rmYeDW p]xUODUvdW0hE'WvDE. t0hEuM]xR0hE'W bJEOd],pDWxRtOd] rH]xRrkWtqmO]rmYeDW ,*JE'WxUbW,l]vDE. ,vhQxDTOYtxD ,bW'WcDTqmY,E qmuWqm*JQvzW tWeJWeI qmrkRqmvQOHWeDWvDE.  

      1889eHU vQ Zefe0g&D (2)OYeDW eIbW rH]xRrkWtqJYeDWvDE. vmt0hEuFJJ]ud] tqmO]rmYzmTeDW tDWO]rmY0hEvmt*hQxkR*DQ vmtxHQOd]rH]xRrkWOHWvzWtzTcdW tDWuhW qmtJWqmuGHQtWrRvDE.  1890 eHU vQ pufwifbg 8OYeDW  tO]tDW0hE 17eHUcDE tUeIvmqdQNQqmtkTvTvm c&mY'dW rg&D*GefZgh*ftplWzmTeDWvDE.

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      1894eHU vQ ZlvSdkif 19OYeDW t0hEtzgzg vdDG;rgwif; OHE0hE'WeDWvDE.eHUteD]zmT t0hE'WeI zmTO]ttJW (qmvDQzd]xME)eDWvDE. t0hEte;O]qmvDQzd]xMEeDW qmqHY[HWeDW vrGJbW qmzDUxUzH]xUt[dQt'dW'J BbWrQxUud]eHQqmzH]qmrQvzWeDW vmytJWuGHQ,l],UbW uqg,GQtzmT y'WeI0hE'WeDWvDE.

      xa&Zg;eDW bJEuuJWxU ymQzDUxUzH]xUqmrQvm qmtDWuDUzmTv*QrGJ*hQ< OYcEv*QrGJ*hQ< *hQ'dW0hE BqHY[HWt'dWv*Qt*; tO]qDUxU0hEtWrRvDE.vgeY tDWvm ugr,fvdkufrH]xRrkWc&mY 6eHU*DQtcE *JEOhW,ExU0hEvm uxDTvmt0hEtzDUwkTt*; v,DEbWeDWvDE. t0hEush]p}]tWrRvgeY t0hEtqmvmYqm[MQvtDWbW< tqm*J;qH]b]qH]vzWeDW *JE'WxU0hE'WeDWvDE. vgeY t0hE tzmTO]ttJW< qk;vhQ0hEvm qmqUvTO]zmTO]eDWvDE. vmqmqH]cd]zdW< qmvmYqm[MQvtDWbWeDW uqguFJ]tqmrQqmTtzmT ytDW'kQyO]eIeDW t0hE *JEeWOhWvYeDWvDE.

      t0hE qmvmY[MQvtDWbWvzW< tqm*J;qH]b]qH]vzWeDW t0hEt*; rGJqmO]vTqh]vT,GQvtDWbW'J uJWxUt0hEt*; qmO]xdR< qmtUeI*J;b]eDWvDE.

      t0hEt0JrkW ay:vif;'J tcdWeg rgo&f tg*eufpf OHWtqmtUuHTtU,EtzmT t0hEzdWOWtxDtqmO]rmYt*J;vzW uM]xU0hEeDWvDE. qmeDW e;O]u*Q t*J; vHRtk]*JEuJWxU0hE'WvDE.

      xa&Zg; tqmqDUqmcsJUeDW *JEe]xUuqH]uqH]vDE. bWxd;0hE'W tWtW'h]vDE. bWtDWvm ymQtDWvrkRqDUvcsJYbWtv;vDE. 1897 vQ pufwifbg 30 v*EtcHY tO]tDW0hE24eHUtxD bWOHE0hE'Wvm wDbDqmqEvDE. t0hEvcJExkRqmcsJTeDW ‘,tJW t0hEvDE. tdk ,,GQ ,tJWxUbWemQvDE. t0hEvOHE'H]bWtxD ‘,OHEthR ,ekRvTvm qmO]rmYqdQuFWvDE tuFDT uM]xR0hE'WvDE.

      1925eHU eDW BOY[GQ'dW yDtl; 11*Q 'k]uJQxUt0hE B    qHY[HWeDWvDE. t0hEtqmO]rmYt*hQ< t0hEuM]xR e;O]vHRvJvzWtuFDT 1997eHU xa&Zg;OHE0hE'W eHU 100xUb]txD OY[GQ'dW *sGefaygvf 2*Qv*Q vDQOhW,ExUbW t0hEeDWrGJ ‘qmtDWuDUtyudUOhWudUbW’ eDWvDE. BqHY[HE xa&Zg;eDWrGJ BqHY[HW BvmrQqmT ymQvmzhWvUvTxRtO]vmqmtDWuDUtqmzH]qmrQvzWt*; eDWvDE.

      BqHY[HWxa&Zg;tzgzgO]bDT vGD;rgwif;'J trdrdO]bDQ aZvD rgwif;eDW  eHU 2015eHU vQ atgufwkdbg 18OYeDW BOY[GQ'dW z&Yph] 'k]uJWxU BqHY[HWeDWvDE.

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